Louisville Art Deco - Feature - The Art Deco Works of Sculptor Rene Paul Chambellan
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July 2007

Rene Paul Chambellan -
One of Art Deco's Greatest Sculptors

by Jim Patterson, with Bob Perrone

Artists played a critical part in architecture during the late '20s, through the '30s, and up to WWII. Art Deco buildings wouldn't have their edgy character without the ornamentation supplied by these artists. A number of talented artists contributed to making each building into its own art gallery of sorts. Metalworkers, muralists, sculptors, designers.... They all played a key part. This feature article is about one of my favorite artists - sculptor Rene Paul Chambellan (pronounced with the "sh" soft sound: "Sham -bell - an").

While Chambellan's work also includes medals and medallions (the Caldecott and Newbery are his best known), I'll focus strictly on his sculpture tied to architectural commissions. While any attempt to list his entire body of work is desirable, unfortunately an artist's contributions to a building project during this era are sometimes 'buried' under the name of the architects involved. Therefore, any listing of his works is a continuing investigation. A book is in the works by his grandson Bob Perrone that will undertake a much broader scope of the artist's life and works than will be addressed by this feature article (see Bob's website and contact information below).


The artist in his studio.
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At work on-site.
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All images copyrighted to their appropriate owners and sources noted with reference numbers.
Fair Use Notice


Introduction:   (Or....How the Chanin Building Got Me Hooked on the work of Rene Paul Chambellan!)

I first encountered Chambellan's work during the beginnings of my Art Deco obsession a few years ago. While researching everything I could about Art Deco architecture online, I ran across a few images of some sculpted panels Chambellan did for the lobby of the Chanin Building in New York City. One in particular immediately got my attention. It looked nearly identical to an image on the cover of one of my favorite novels, "Atlas Shrugged" by Ayn Rand.


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[Here's a page about the book cover's artist, Nick Gaetano: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nick_Gaetano]


Being a huge Ayn Rand fan, I found this similarity more than interesting! Now, granted, the image on the book was not original to the 1957 novel. It was used beginning with the 35th anniversary edition in 1992. However, it struck me how much the ideals of Rand's characters' and the ideals of the Art Deco and Modern era had in common:

These ideals emphasized things such as education, achievement, labor, determination, independence, self-responsibility, value production, capitalism, honesty, integrity, accountability.... essentially the qualities of self-made men & women who looked toward the future with bright hope, made their own opportunitites and achieved great goals.

And....here was Chambellon's work for the Chanin Building representing in a strictly visual form exactly all those attributes!

I was hooked.

Turns out that the guy who built the Chanin Building, Irwin S. Chanin, was himself a self-made man - from poor immigrant to successful architect & developer. He wanted the building that bore his name to represent everything America and New York City meant for him... and could also be for all those that chose to seek it. So... he had Rene Chambellan work with Jacques Delamarre (Chanin's lead architect ) to develop a set of eight relief sculptures to represent this.

There were two lobbies in the building, each with four sculpted plaques and accompanying abstract metal grilles just below them - all of which were to represent a theme of "New York - City of Opportunity." Four plaques each represent the Mental Life and the Physical Life of the individual who desires to succeed. Each plaque had a designated title:

Mental Life: "Enlightenment," "Vision," "Courage," "Achievement"
Physical Life: "Endurance," "Activity," "Effort," "Success"

Here are the sculpted plaques that launched my interest in Rene Paul Chambellan (you'll see some color photos further below).
I've noted the plaque titles for which I've seen a specific reference:


Achievement
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Enlightenment
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Endurance
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These hyper-masculine (as one internet article calls them) angular human forms peaked my curiosity about everything they represent and for the artist that produced them.


Enter Bob Perrone...

Once something interests me, I want to research all I can regarding the topic. The works I'd seen so far by Chambellan compelled me to discover more about this visionary sculptor. I was coming up almost empty-handed in trying to locate information. There just wasn't much available.

Shortly into my research I discovered a relatively obscure discussion board based on New York City buildings. I saw a message thread about the Chanin Building and it included a post from a Robert Perrone stating he was the grandson of the building's sculptor, Rene Paul Chambellan. It had been months since he posted it, but I thought I'd go ahead and post a reply message anyway, just in case he ever returned to the board. I asked where I could find out more about the sculptor, if there was a book, and what other works did he produce.

A few months later I receive a reply from Bob! I never expected to hear back from him at all, so this was a great surprise. He indicated to me that there was not yet a book published, but that he had been collecting information on his grandfather's works for many years and intended on producing one. He had many photos and sketches from his grandfather's studio. He shared a lot of information with me, and I shared images I had found on the internet of what were (or appeared to be) Chambellan's works. Coincidentally, this all started in November 2005, just as I was beginning this Louisville Art Deco website.

Since then, Bob and I have periodically exchanged emails. Bob has been extremely supportive in my decision to run this feature, and has been willing to share images from his collection that aren't publicly available.


Brief biographical facts for Rene Paul Chambellan:
Born: September 1893, West Hoboken, New Jersey, USA
Died: November 1955, Cliffside Park, New Jersey, USA
Studied at New York University, Ecole des Beaux-Arts (Paris), Academie Julian (Paris)
WW I - Served as Sergeant in 11th US Engineers Corps


Images of Rene Paul Chambellan's Work:
(Click on the thumbnail photo to view a larger image)

Chanin Building - New York, New York
As noted above, the set of lobby reliefs entitled "New York - City of Opportunity" consisted of eight plaques... four representing the Mental Life and four the Physical Life of the successful individual. Each relief had a companion metal radiator grill below it. These beautiful modernist grills are perhaps the first use of abstract ornamentation in a building in the United States.

The beautiful gates that one had to enter the executive suite on the 52nd floor, represented the arts (violin at the top), industry (electrical bolts and gears), and commerce (the stacks of coins everything rested upon).

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Rockefeller Center - New York, New York

The Channel Gardens
The promenade between the British and French buildings contains six raised gardens with shallow pools - each with a bronze fountain and drain. The fountains feature male and female mythical figures (Tritons and Nereids), while the drain covers are of various sea creatures. Each of the six figures had a name: Leadership, Will, Thought, Imagination, Energy, Alertness.

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International Building
Chambellan and fellow sculptor Lee Lawrie collaborated on the International Building facade sculpture and the statue of Atlas.


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Radio City Music Hall

Main Entrance
(plaques above)

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Auditorium Door
(2 plaques of 66)

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Elevator Door
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RKO Roxy Theater
Demolished.

Zodiac sculptures on the ceiling.

British Building

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French Building

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Daily News Building - New York, New York

Front entrance facade
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Stewart and Company Building - New York, New York
Demolished

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Shrine of the Little Flower Church - Royal Oak, Michigan
Unsure if all the exterior sculpture can be attributed to Chambellen.

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American Radiator Building - New York, New York

Bosses
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Firestone Library, Princeton Universtiy - Princeton, New Jersey

Boss mold
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Boss mold
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Boss mold
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Pratt Institute, Memorial Hall - Brooklyn, New York

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West Side Highway (Miller Highway) - New York, New York
Demolished. Chambellan sculpted the five different historic New York city seals which were mounted all along the highway. He is also attributed to all other decorative features including pier entrance signs and winged wheel sculptures at entrance ramps.

Pier sculpture
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Detail
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Pier sculpture
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Detail
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All 5 City Seals
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Entrance ramp grill work
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Airlines Terminal Building (Airlines Building) - New York, New York
Demolished. Chambellan sculpted the large eagles on the roof. It appears from the photo that he also may have done some work around the main entrance. The eagles were saved and moved to Best Foods in Richmond, Virgina. That building is now owned by Bank of America.


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Part of the Airlines Terminal Bldg?
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Keith Theater - Cincinnati, Ohio
Demolished.


Chicago Tribune Building - Chicago, Illinois

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Netherlands Hotel & Carew Tower - Cincinnati, Ohio
Chambellan is attributed to all exterior and interior sculpture & metal work of this fabulous Art Deco complex (hotel and office tower). Click on the image below to see a bunch of photos from a personal visit I made to the building:


Click on pic for full page of photos


Davidson County Courthouse - Nashville, Tennessee
Chambellan is attributed to all the exterior sculpture and the bronze doors. Click on the image below to see a number of photos from a personal visit I made to the building:


Click on pic for full page of photos


Sterling Memorial Library, Yale University - New Haven, Connecticut
Unsure if the boss sculptures can be attributed to Chambellan.

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Home Savings Bank - Albany, New York


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Suffolk Title & Guarantee Building - Queens, New York


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Panhellenic Tower (Beekman Tower) - New York, New York


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1939 World's Fair - Flushing, New York
Demolished. Chambellan did the North Corona Gate as well as a statue called "The Spirit of the Wheel".

North Corona Gate

North Corona Gate

North Corona Gate

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From a Grandson's Perspective - by Bob Perrone

I asked Bob to put together something about his grandfather regarding the sculptor's history, work and family. He shares with us a part of the man that you won't find when you read the short bio's you might find in the back of an Art book. So, in Bob's own words...


In his work "uniform"
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Papere, as our family referred to our grandfather Rene Paul Chambellan, was first and foremost a dedicated family man and patriot. I was only 18 months old when he died but through family oral history and the past three years of extensive research into his life and work for his biography I have finally come to know my dear Papere inside and out. What I have learned has left me feeling inspired and in awe of this man's accomplishments; not only as a master sculptor but as a man.

He was educated at NYU studying architecture and fine arts. After serving in World War I and surviving wounds from a gas attack during his tour of duty as a sergeant in the Army Corp of Engineers he was afforded the opportunity to study at the Art Academy which was opened by the US Army through the help of the YMCA and in cooperation with the Ecole des Beaux-Arts after the armistice was signed in November of 1918. The American troops could not be sent home until a formal treaty was enacted and consequently they had much time on their hands. In order to stem the antics of idle troops who, in many cases, would go AWOL to venture to Paris which was in no condition to handle so many soldiers off on a lark, the Army instituted various schools educating the servicemen in a wide range of study. The Art Academy was housed at the same building that Isadora Duncan used for her dance school. During the war the building was used as a hospital for victims of gas attacks. Rene Chambellan was grateful enough for the opportunity to write a letter of thanks to the program's director George Sidney Hellman of Columbia University: "after something like two years of abstention I was once more able to get back to my work; words could not express my joy and gratification that I was once again forging ahead".

Rene Chambellan was experienced and talented enough to gain a formal seat for education at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris once the short 3-4 months of education was completed at the Art Academy. Through his recognized expertise at the Beaux Arts and the subsequent connections it created to former graduates such as Solon Borglum, Raymond Hood, John Meade Howells and many others his opportunity of success during the building boom in New York after the war was presented.

It was during his education in Paris that he met his wife Suzanne while viewing the last great victory parade in Paris. The parade commemorated not only the end of the war but the ending of the athletic games held at Pershing Stadium. Rene Chambellan designed the memorial plaque at the stadium under the tutoring of Solon Borglum.

The story of meeting his future wife is best told from this except from the biography I am authoring and based upon the family story regarding their meeting:

    Across the street, Rene Chambellan's eye caught the sudden glint of Suzanne's hair in the sunlight as her hat became a fugitive. It is said that love at first sight can't be described; you simply know it when it happens. Well, in that moment Rene learned that truth.
    "Rene?" asked Joe. "Rene! What on earth is the matter?"
    I stood frozen, even the thundering drums and the boots of the marchers were sent to the background. Joe's voice was far away and muffled as all I could see was this woman across the street. She was a beautiful woman with eyes that a man could drown in.
    She wore a simple dress, typical of what was available to most women nowadays in France. It was a plain frock; dark blue with a white blouse. Her hair reflected the sunlight through its gentle curls. She stood pointing down at the sidewalk and gesturing to another woman standing next to her. I guessed that she must have dropped something and was frantic about retrieving whatever it was.
    I got down from my perch on the base of the lamp post and began the process of wading my way out to the street with the intention of crossing over to get a better look at her. As soon as I alighted onto the sidewalk, Joe exclaimed "Rene, what on earth are you doing? Where are you going?"
    "Joe, see that woman across the street, the one with the pretty hair?" I shouted. "I'm going to marry her!"
    "What?" shouted Joe, trying to be heard over the parade as I found an opening and darted out across the street. "Have you lost your mind Rene? You don't even know who she is!"
    "Oh yes I do!" I shouted back, "That's going to be my wife!"
    Careening through the crowd and darting between the marching troops I made it across the street and only a few feet from her. Quickly I scanned the sidewalk to see what it could be that she was pointing to and then I saw it, a small hat. I got to my knees and dove through the mass of legs and shoes after the errant accessory.
    In a moment I snagged it and stood triumphantly before this lovely woman who had captured my heart. My hair was tousled and her poor hat was trampled, but I stood as the conquering hero presenting the spoils of my adventures.

After three attempts my grandmother finally accepted his proposal and after completing his education at the Ecole des Beau Arts they returned to America where Rene Chambellan would teach sculpting and also lectured at NYU for two years.

His first known commission was for the second story sculptures on the Russell Sage building in Manhattan. Shortly afterwards he would find himself in great demand by the noted architects of the day and in the short span from 1922 to 1939 would produce lasting sculptures and design elements for over 30 buildings. The majority were in New York City and its boroughs but also included structures as far west as Michigan and as far south as South Carolina. Coupled with over 30 prized commemorative medals produced for the Medallic Art Company, corporate awards and private commission work such as the Caldecott and Newbury literature medals and the Vanderbilt mansion on Long Island, NY you can see why I am in awe of the volume of quality work he produced.

Besides being in great demand from architects Rene Chambellan also enjoyed admiration and love from fellow artists of the day. Lee Lawrie, Jacques Delamarre, Norman Bel Geddes and Malivina Hoffman; to name a few, relied upon his expertise in sculpture enlargement and refinement. Many well known sculptures such as the Atlas statue and friezes at Rockefeller Center by Lee Lawrie and Malvina Hoffman's "Races of Man" series would not have been possible were it not for Rene Chambellan's uncanny ability to faithfully reproduce on a large scale the small sculptures and drawings produced by these artists. He was always generous with use of his studio space and talents and my mother and aunt tell of many happy times Rene Chambellan had with these artists who became friends of the family.

Rene Chambellan possessed a great sense of humor and it was reflected many times in his work. As examples the gargoyles on the Chicago Tribune Tower not only depict Raymond Hood (as Robin Hood) and John Howells (as a hound dog) but also himself, represented as a frog; no doubt poking fun at the American reference to those of French decent as "frogs". At the Firestone Library at Princeton he was commissioned to create several bosses for the gothic exterior representing studies of music, literature and other subjects. When learning of the architect's talent at playing the flute he modeled a flautist in the architect's image. It was noticed by the approval board and after some laughter was accepted in spite of the joke. The Sterling Memorial Library at Yale and the Charles Deering Library at Northwestern University also contain numerous humorous sculptures. You should visit the libraries and enjoy them.

The family has stories of his humor as well. Working in clay all the time presents a problem with arm hair. The clay would stick to the hair and after drying would be painful to remove. Rene Chambellan solved this dilemma by periodically burning off his arm hair on the kitchen stove! Of course, the family would get into an uproar about this practice and the subsequent smell but I want to believe that he most likely took great joy in the periodic havoc this would create in the household, especially from my grandmother.

One other family story involves a large bronze rabbit. He would take pleasure in creating figures simply for his own amusement and others. The rabbit stood in the yard near a walkway and one afternoon while he was chasing some neighborhood kids from the yard; fearing they would trample his garden, he ran into the rabbit and in anger he kicked the thing, thus injuring his foot. Upset at this most rude rabbit he proceeded to haul it indoors and placed it in front of the hearth as some sort of punishment I guess. The poor rabbit never saw the light of day after that episode. There are many more stories but these should give to you a good sense of how much this man enjoyed life.

He never fully recovered from the gas attack during the war, suffering from numerous bouts of pneumonia and a heart condition. There was a period during the latter days of the construction of Rockefeller Center that we almost lost him. My mother tells of a death watch at his home in Cliffside Park, NJ where numerous "important people" as she put it visited Rene in his bedroom. She recalls hushed voices and some of the visitors assuring him that his family would be looked after. Of course it probably is not a big stretch to think that the major players in the project were probably there. He did survive but he usually was ill during the fall and winter months and eventually the injury got the best of him during the last years of the 1940's. He suffered a series of strokes and heart attacks which forced him to close his studio. He never stopped working and proceeded to produce more work from his home until his death in 1955 after his last major stroke. He died in the hospital on the morning of the day he was supposed to return home.

I believe this excerpt from the forward of my book about Rene Chambellan sums up the man very well:

Above all he loved his work and his family, never seeking the spotlight and content to simply provide for his family though pursuing his passion. We should all be so lucky. How one individual could produce such an enormous quantity of beautiful creations in such a brief period; gracing structures that have stood the test of time and, in most cases, become historic treasures of our nation and cities is something that I find hard to grasp.

After completing this work and consequently discovering this man it has caused me to reflect upon my commitment to expectations that I place upon myself and how to mimic his selfless dedication to his work and his family. I would hope that you, the reader, will also come away with the same renewed belief in yourself. He was also a patriot, forever grateful for the blessings that came with being an American. The personal commitment to be the best he could be as a father, an American, and artist and simply as a human being speaks volumes to his integrity.

Sadly his career ended before he was willing to let it go. With the advent of modern and impersonal steel and glass structures and his failing health Rene Chambellan saw the end of the most creative American architectural periods coming and wanted no part of it, leaving his studio.

With meticulous research I hope to inspire you, as I have been, by this man's creations and the way that he lived his life. I was only 18 months old when my Pepere died and my hope is that the joy I have experienced in discovering my grandfather will transcend these words and pictures and touch all those who enjoy this book.

His story is an image of triumph over adversity, love and dedication and incredible knowledge and talent. It is by the hand of fate that he was able to contribute his gifts in such a public way for all to enjoy.


The biography of Rene Chambellan is written from his viewpoint in a style called "descriptive narrative". I felt that his view of his family, his work and the world in general would be best told in this manner which reads like a novel. It would present the opportunity to discover Rene Paul Chambellan for those who otherwise would not seek the subject matter unless they were either fans of Art Deco or architecture in general. I wanted his story to be presented to as wide an audience as possible.

Featured in the book will also be a complete library of his accomplishments presented with never before seen archival photos of the models and/or sketches of the elements for the projects. This will present a more personal view of the sculpting process as well as personal reflections of the artist from his private sketchbook. It is my way of thanking all of you who, over the years, have been fans of my grandfather's work and to provide to historians and fans of this era a complete reference to some of the most important projects of that time.

I am presently seeking a publisher for the book and I sincerely thank Jim Patterson for his gracious invitation to muse about my grandfather and announce the availability of a biography of this wonderful artist and man in this publication.

If you have questions regarding Rene Chambellan, the buildings that he contributed to or if you are interested in discussing publication of this book my contact information is:

Bob Perrone
115 North 11th Street
Allentown, PA 18102
Bob Perrone


List of Known Architectural Work - research by Bob Perrone
This list will be updated as new information becomes available. If you are aware of any changes, additions or corrections, please email here: Bob Perrone

Year
Completed
Building Name Location Architect(s) Chambellan's Contribution
1922-26 Russell Sage Building (now Sage House) New York, New York Grosvenor Atterbury, John A. Tompkins II Second floor exterior sculpture panels added 1922-26 with annex. Each panel is in the form of a shield, represent health, work, play, housing, religion, education, civics, and justice. Above the former main entrance, on 22nd Street, is a rectangular panel representing the specialized work of the organization - study, service, and counsel.
1924 American Radiator Building (American Standard Building) New York, New York Raymond Hood & Andre Fouilhoux Sculpted figures (bosses) and design elements
1925 Chicago Tribune Tower Chicago, Illinois Raymond Hood (Hood & Howells) Gargoyles, gothic ornamentation, "Aesop's Screen" sculpture over main entrance
1925 Keith Theater Queens - New York Not yet identified Sculpture & plaque work in the auditorium (now lost due to remodeling), facade and lobby
1927 Pratt Institute Memorial Hall Brooklyn, New York John Mead Howells Exterior sculpture work
1931 Sterling Memorial Library Yale University - New Haven, Connecticut James Gamble Rogers Entrance facade figures based upon Lee Lawrie sketch, but executed by Chambellan. All remaining sculpture and facade work by Chambellan.
1927 Home Savings Bank of Albany Albany, New York Dennison & Hirons Exterior and interior metal work and stone sculptures including lobby floor design, elevator doors, stair railings and windows
1928? University Library Leuven, Belgium Not yet identified Not yet identified contributions to the rebuilding of the library and bell tower
1928 Beaux Arts Institute of Design New York, New York Not yet identified Facade sculptures and commemorative plaque on exterior
1928 New York Life Insurance Building New York, New York Cass Gilbert Not yet identified
1928 State Bank & Trust New York, New York Dennison & Hirons Not yet identified
1929 Chanin Building New York, New York Sloan & Robertson Lobby panels and all abstract grill work, Chanin Gates at the executive suite, Exterior sculpture
1929 Princeton University Chapel Princeton, New Jersey Ralph Adams Cram Not yet identified
1929 Suffolk Title & Guarantee Building Queens, New York Dennison & Hirons Exterior terra cotta ornamentation
1928 Panhellenic Tower (Beekman Tower) New York, New York John Mead Howells Facade ornamentation and lobby
1929 Williamsburg Savings Bank Brooklyn, New York Halsey, McCormack and Helmer Facade sculpture and bronze entrance doors
1931 Carew Tower & Netherlands Hotel Cincinnati, Ohio Shreve, Lamb and Harmon Associates All exterior and interior sculpture & metal work
1929 Metropolitan Life Building New York, New York Not yet identified Facade designs and entrance doors
1929 Stewart & Company Building New York, New York Warren & Whetmore Exterior wall panel sculptures, Possibly bronze entrance doors. Building demolished for Trump Towers.
1930 Daily News Building New York, New York Raymond Hood Facade sculpture and design elements
1930 Bushnell Memorial Hall Hartford, Connecticut Corbet, Harrison & McMurray Theater wall decoration, Possibly exterior sculptures
1930 to 1951 West Side Highway (Miller Highway) New York, New York N.A. All decorative features including pier entrance signs, five historic city seals & winged wheel sculptures at entrance ramps
1931 Buffalo City Hall Buffalo, New York Deitel & Wade Bronze entrance doors and some of the exterior sculptures
1931 Majestic Apartments New York, New York Irwin S. Chanin, Jacques Delamarre Designed the patterned brickwork of the facade
1931 Century Apartments New York, New York Irwin S. Chanin Designs (?)
1931 Kings County Hospital Brooklyn, New York LP Ward Not yet identified
1931 to 1936 Shrine of the Little Flower Church Royal Oak, Michigan Henry McGill All exterior sculpture including central tower. Bronze door reliefs. Interior: St. Therese Chapel sculpture
1932 New York State Office Building (Alfred E. Smith State Office Building) Albany, New York Sullivan W. Jones & William E. Haugaard Not yet identified
1932 Worcester Memorial Auditorium Worcester, Massachusetts Not yet identified Exterior wall scluptures and interior memorial sculptures (pair), lobby ornamentations, organ pipe grill work, three entrance doors
1932 to 1939 Rockefeller Center New York, New York Raymond Hood Channel Garden fountains and drain covers. Collaborated with Lee Lawrie on "Atlas" statue and International Building facade sculpture ("Races of Man"). Ceiling sculptures of Roxy Theater. Lobby panels and elevator doors of Radio City Music Hall. Chief Modeller for the entire project.
1933 Charles Deering Library Northwestern University - Evanston, Illinois Not yet identified Entrance facade. Exterior and interior sculptures
1937 Davidson County Courthouse Nashville, Tennessee Hirons & Woolwine Exterior niche sculptures, bronze entrance doors, interior sculptures and design work
1937 Nashville City Office Building (?) Nashville, Tennessee Not yet identified Bronze doors and exterior sculpture
1939 to 1940 New York World's Fair Flushing, New York N.A. North Corona Gate, "Spirit of the Wheel" statue, Collaborated on enlargements of Malvina Hoffman's "Races of Man" statues
1940 Airlines Terminal Building (Airlines Building) New York, New York JB Peterkin Giant eagle sculptures on roof, Building demolished, but eagles saved and moved to Best Foods (now Bank of America) in Richmond, Virginia
1941 Criminal Courts Building (Manhattan Criminal Courthouse) New York, New York Harvey Wiley Corbett & Charles B. Meyers Not yet identified
1948 Firestone Library Princeton University - Princeton, New Jersey O'Connor & Kilham Bosses and gargoyles for exterior elements
19?? Queens County Hospital (?) New York, New York Not yet identified Not yet identified
19?? Naval Hospital Beaufort, South Carolina Not yet identified Not yet identified


Links relating to Rene Paul Chambellan:


Sources:
1) A Romance With The City, Irwin S. Chanin, ed. Diana Agrest, The Cooper Union Press, 1982
2) From the Chambellan family private collection - copyright Chambellan Family, all rights reserved
3) http://www.nyc-architecture.com/MID/MID019.htm and/or http://www.nyc-architecture.com/ARCH/Notes-ARTDECO.htm
4) The Art of the Rockefeller Center, by Christine Roussel, W.W. Norton & Co., New York, 2006
5) Amazon.com
6) American Art Deco, by Alastair Duncan
7) Art Deco Architecture, by Patricia Bayer
8) Rediscovering Art Deco USA, by Barbara Capitman, et al
9) http://www.shrinechurch.com/
10) http://www.trekearth.com/gallery/North_America/United_States/photo63336.htm
11) http://www.bluffton.edu/~sullivanm/hood/hood4.html
12) http://www.bridgeandtunnelclub.com
13) http://libweb2.princeton.edu/rbsc2/libraryhistory/Pictures/1948_Firestone_details/pages/bosses1.html
14) http://www.eekarchitects.com/portfolio_projects.cfm?ProjectID=16171
15) http://www.lostnewyorkcity.com/board/index.php?topic=18.0
16) http://www.nyc-architecture.com/GON/GON020.htm
17) http://www.nychighways.com/wsh.html
18) http://www.lostnewyorkcity.com/board/index.php?topic=151.0
19) http://www.forgotten-ny.com/STREET%20SCENES/miller/miller.html
20) http://www.flickr.com/photos/wallyg/
21) http://www.candydandy.net/photo/list/nyc/index.php?imgid=1004
22) http://www.flickr.com/photos/mysticpenguin/
23) http://www.flickr.com/photos/macjeep/
24) http://www.flickr.com/photos/kellyhafermann/
25) http://www.flickr.com/photos/leonefabre/
26) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sterling_Memorial_Library
27) http://www.flickr.com/photos/40397489@N00/
28) http://www.flickr.com/photos/46901841@N00/
29) http://www.flickr.com/photos/vogelium/
30) http://www.flickr.com/photos/randylevine/
31) http://www.nyc-architecture.com/MID/MID003.htm
32) http://www.flickr.com/photos/chathamshooter/
33) Thanks to Jerry C. Karlik for locating the photo of "The Spirit of the Wheel" statue!


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